The major difference between plant and bacterial cell is— plant cell contains membrane-bound organelles whereas bacterial cell lacks membrane-bound organelles. This separates both types of cells into prokaryotic (bacterial) and eukaryotic cells (plant).
Both types of cells contain a cell wall and cell membrane the only difference between the cell wall and cell membrane of bacterial and plant cells are in composition.
Bacterial cells and plant cells are both eukaryotic cells, meaning they have a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles. However, there are several differences between the two.
Bacterial cells are much smaller than plant cells, typically ranging from 0.2 to 2.0 micrometers in diameter. They lack a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles and instead have a single, circular chromosome located in the cytoplasm. Bacterial cells also lack a cell wall, which is present in plant cells.
Plant cells are much larger than bacterial cells, typically ranging from 10 to 100 micrometers in diameter. They have a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles, and a cell wall composed of cellulose. Plant cells also contain chloroplasts, which are not present in bacterial cells. Chloroplasts are responsible for photosynthesis, which is the process by which plants convert light energy into chemical energy.
|S.No.||Bacterial Cell||Plant Cell|
|1.||Its cytoplasm does not exhibit streaming movement.||Its cytoplasm exhibit streaming movement.|
|2.||Its cytoplasm lacks membrane-bound organelles like Mitochondria, Plastids, and Endoplasmic Reticulum||Its cytoplasm contains organelles like Mitochondria, Plastids, and Endoplasmic Reticulum.|
|3.||There is no well-defined nucleus. It only contains one chromosome which is ring-shaped and is embedded in the center of the cell cytoplasm.||There is a well-defined nucleus having numerous chromosomes.|
|4.||In the green bacterial cell, photosynthetic pigments are found in mesosomes.||In-plant cells, photosynthetic pigments are found in the chloroplast.|
|5.||It lacks a nuclear membrane.||It contains a nuclear membrane.|
|6.||Generally, they have no vacuoles.||Vacuoles are present.|
|7.||Some of the bacterial cells have flagella and sex pili.||They have no flagella and sex pili.|
|8.||Have both autotrophic and heterotrophic modes of nutrition.||Have only autotrophic mode of nutrition.|
|9.||Have both aerobic and anaerobic modes of respiration.||Have only aerobic mode of respiration.|
|10.||They have both sexual and asexual modes of reproduction.||They have both sexual and asexual modes of reproduction.|
|11.||During sexual reproduction, only a little part of the chromosome of the male is transferred to the female cell.||During sexual reproduction, the nucleus of the male gamete fuses with the nucleus of the female gamete.|